Venezuela: Revoke emergency decree and comply with HRC membership standards

06.06.2016

Venezuela should revoke an unnecessary and arbitrary emergency decree that severely restricts human rights and the work of civil society actors, while other States should push Venezuela to comply with the basic standards of membership of the UN Human Rights Council, 124 civil society organisations said today.

Venezuela should revoke an unnecessary and arbitrary emergency decree that severely restricts human rights and the work of civil society actors, while other States should push Venezuela to comply with the basic standards of membership of the UN Human Rights Council, 124 civil society organisations said today.

(Geneva) – The international community should press Venezuela to revoke a recent ‘State of Exception and Emergency Decree’ that granted the government powers to restrict rights, suspend international cooperation for civil society groups, including human rights organisations, and limit the constitutional powers of the National Assembly, 124 human rights and civil society organisations from around the world said today.

The groups emphasised that these powers could be used to seriously undermine the work of civil society organisations and harass and intimidate human rights defenders, noting that the measures are inconsistent with Venezuela’s obligation as a member of the UN Human Rights Council to ‘uphold the highest standards of human rights’. The groups called on states to raise these concerns during the upcoming UN Human Rights Council session in June 2016, and governments in the Americas to carry out a candid assessment of the human rights situation in Venezuela before competent Organisations of American States (OAS) bodies. The OAS and United Nations human rights systems should request Venezuela to revoke the state of exception and economic emergency decree, the groups said.

On 13 May 2016, President Nicolás Maduro adopted an emergency decree that declared a state of exception in the country for 60 days, granting his government the power to potentially restrict human rights. Venezuela is facing an economic crisis, with severe shortages of medicines and basic goods, as well as electricity shortages, which the decree states it aims to address.

President Maduro claims that the emergency measures are in response to concerns including a foreign-led plot to destabilise his government. The 13 May decree authorizes the president to ‘adopt measures and execute special security plans that guarantee the sustainability of the public order when faced with destabilising actions’ and ‘any other social, environmental, economic, political, and legal measures he deems convenient’. In the past, the Venezuelan government has responded to alleged ‘destabilisation’ plots by jailing opponents and critics clamping down on the expression of dissent and the right to freedom of assembly, including through arbitrary arrests of political opponents and critics, and the weakening of the safeguards against torture. Security forces have used excessive force to disperse anti-government demonstrations, and have participated in nationwide security operations since July 2015 that led to widespread allegations of abuses against low-income and immigrant communities, including extrajudicial executions, massive arbitrary detentions, evictions without due process, destructions of homes, and arbitrary deportations.

The decree does not meet international standards to restrict rights during states of emergency, the groups said. Under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, governments do have the power to ‘derogate’, or temporarily suspend, some of their human rights obligations by declaring a state of emergency – but only in the face of a public emergency that ‘threatens the life of the nation’. Even then, governments may only derogate from human rights obligations to the extent ‘strictly required by the exigencies of the situation’. Instead, President Maduro’s broad decree could enable the government to further undermine basic rights that are already under sustained assault in Venezuela, including the rights to freedom of association, assembly, and expression.

The emergency decree also instructs the Foreign Affairs Ministry to suspend all international cooperation agreements that provide funding to individuals or organisations when ‘it is presumed’ that such agreements ‘are used with political purposes or to destabilise the Republic’. In a country where authorities have routinely accused civil society representatives, including human rights defenders, of destabilising Venezuelan democracy, this order could effectively force key Venezuelan independent organisations, which rely on foreign funding to work independently, to shut down or dramatically scale back their work.

In addition, the emergency decree allows the president to block the National Assembly from using its constitutional powers to sanction government officials. The Venezuelan Constitution grants the National Assembly oversight powers over the executive branch, including the power to summon officials to be questioned about their policies and practices by legislative committees and – in the case of the vice president and cabinet ministers – to remove them from office through a no-confidence vote. The 13 May decree allows the president to impose a ‘temporary suspension’ of accountability mechanisms of this kind if he deems they could ‘undermine national security’ or could ‘obstruct the continuity of the implementation of economic measures for the urgent reactivation of the national economy [or] the provision of essential goods and services to the Venezuelan people’.

The Venezuelan Constitution requires National Assembly approval of decrees declaring states of emergency. The National Assembly rejected the new emergency decree on 17 May. However, the Supreme Court ruled in February 2016 that National Assembly rejection of decrees declaring states of emergency does not ‘affect the[ir] legitimacy, validity, and juridical efficacy’.

Since the government’s political takeover of the Supreme Court in 2004, the judiciary has ceased to function as an independent branch of government, and has routinely validated the government’s policies and practices that fail to meet international human rights standards. The National Assembly, which was controlled by government supporters for most of the past decade, repeatedly enacted ‘enabling laws’ granting the president broad powers to legislate. It repacked the Supreme Court, most recently in December 2015, to ensure that a loyal court remained in place. Since the new opposition-controlled National Assembly took office on 5 January 2016, the Supreme Court has adopted a series of rulings that severely undermine its ability to legislate.

The June session of the UN Human Rights Council provides a timely and necessary opportunity to press Venezuela to revoke this unnecessary and arbitrary decree.

Signatories:

International Organisations

APT, Association for the Prevention of Torture

 

CCPR, Centre for Civil and Political Rights

 

CIVICUS, World Alliance for Citizen Participation

 

DPLF, Due Process Law Foundation

 

HRW, Human Rights Watch

 

ICJ, International Commission of Jurists

 

ISHR, International Service for Human Rights

 

OMCT, World Organisation Against Torture

 

PIDHDD, Plataforma Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, Democracia y Desarrollo

 

CPD, Cooperation for Peace and Development

Afghanistan

ADC, Asociación por los Derechos Civiles

Argentina

CELS, Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales

Argentina

Rainbow Warriors Core Foundation

Aruba

University of New South Wales

Australia

Aid Organisation

Bangladesh

UDDYOG Foundation

Bangladesh

Asociación Nacional de la Prensa de Bolivia

Bolivia

Fundación Construir

Bolivia

LACCASO, Latin American Council of Aids Service Organisations

Brasil

Movimento Ficha Verde

Brasil

Cambodian Development and Research Institute

Cambodia

FAPEFE, Fondation des femmes actives pour la promotion de l´education de la femme et de l´enfant

Cameroon

Voice of Grace Foundation

Cameroon

Gigascope

Canada

University of Ottawa

Canada

Corporación Humanas

Chile

Observatorio Ciudadano

Chile

Comisión Colombiana de Juristas

Colombia

Dejusticia

Colombia

IPLEX, Instituto de prensa y libertad de expresión

Costa Rica

Action et Humanisme

Ivory Coast

Climate Reality Project Cote d´Ivoire

Ivory Coast

Revolution Congolaise

Democratic Republic of Congo

CSMM, Centro de Documentación en Derechos Humanos "Segundo Montes Mozo S.J."

Ecuador

INREDH, Fundación Regional de Asesoría en Derechos Humanos

Ecuador

Kepa

Finland

Action for Solidarity

United States

WOLA, Washington Office on Latin America

United States

Mekelle University

Ethiopia

International Institute for Child Protection

Gambia

Tamale International Folk High School

Ghana

SEDEM, Seguridad en Democracia

Guatemala

Association for Promotion Sustainable Development

India

Humanity Welfare Forum

India

India Media Centre

India

Tata Cummins

India

Nchekoua Business Consulting Club

Italy

Women Empowerment Group

Kenya

SHIBL Movement

Libya

Abogadas y Abogados para la Justicia y los Derechos Humanos

Mexico

Centro de Derechos Humanos Miguel Ángel Agustín Pro Juárez, A.C.

Mexico

Ciudadanos en Apoyo a los Derechos Humanos, A. C.

Mexico

Comisión Mexicana de Defensa y Promoción de los Derechos Humanos, A.C.

Mexico

JOINT, Liga de ONG de Mozambique

Mozambique

YPDSN, Young Professional Development Society Nepal

Nepal

Centro Nicaragüense de Derechos Humanos

Nicaragua

ARIJ, Applied Research Institute – Jerusalem

Palestine

Consumo Ético

Panama

Ágora Espacio Civil Paraguay

Paraguay

Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos

Peru

Comisión de Justicia Social de la Diócesis de Chimbote

Peru

Instituto Peruano de Educación en Derechos Humanos y la Paz

Peru

Instituto de Defensa Legal

Peru

IPYS

Peru

Movimiento Manuela Ramos

Peru

Observatorio Latinoamericano para la Libertad de Expresión

Peru

Paz y Esperanza

Peru

SAHDCG, Social and Humanitarian Development Consultative Group

Sudan

ALEJO Community Support Project

Zambia

 

Venezuelan Organisations

Acceso a la Justicia

Acción Solidaria en VIH/sida

ACCSI, Acción Ciudadana Contra el SIDA

Amigos Trasplantados de Venezuela

Asociación Civil Movimiento Vinotinto

AVESA, Asociación Venezolana para una Educación Sexual Alternativa

CECODAP

Centro de Derechos Humanos de la Universidad Católica Andrés Bello

Centro de Derechos Humanos de la Universidad Metropolitana

Centro para la Paz y los DDHH - UCV

CEPAZ, Centro Justicia y Paz

CISFEM, Centro de Investigación Social Formación y Estudios de la Mujer

CIVILIS Derechos Humanos

CODEVIDA, Coalición de organizaciones por los derechos a la salud y la vida

COFAVIC, Comité de Familiares de las Víctimas de los Sucesos de febrero-marzo de 1989

Colegio Nacional de Periodistas

Comisión De Justicia y Paz

Comisión Nacional de DDHH de la Federación de Colegios de Abogados de Venezuela

CONVITE

Espacio Público

EXCUBITUS A.C.

Expresión Libre

Federación Nacional de Sociedades de Padres y Representantes (FENASOPADRES)

FEPAP, Fundación Ensayos para el Aprendizaje Permanente

Funcamama

Fundación Aguaclara

Fundación Ecodiversa

FUNPAZ, Asociación Civil Fuerza, Unión, Justicia, Solidaridad y Paz

ININCO, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Comunicación de la Universidad Central de Venezuela

INVESP, Instituto Venezolano de Estudios Sociales y Políticos

IPYS Venezuela

Justicia y Paz Los Teques

Laboratorio de Paz

María Estrella de la Mañana

Observatorio de Derechos Humanos de La Universidad de Los Andes

Observatorio Venezolano de los Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres

Observatorio Venezolano de Prisiones

Oficina de Derechos Humanos del Vicariato de Puerto Ayacucho

Postgrado en Comunicación Social de la Universidad Católica Andrés Bello

ProIuris

PROVEA, Programa Venezolano de Educación Acción en Derechos Humanos

Red ARA

Red Rosa

REDAC, Red de Activistas Ciudadanos por los Derechos Humanos

REDSOC, Red Venezolana de Organizaciones para el Desarrollo Social

Revista SIC

RTSP, Comité por una Radiotelevisión de Servicio Público

Ser, Comunicación e Investigación

Sinergia, Asociación Venezolana de Organizaciones de Sociedad Civil

SNTP, Sindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de la Prensa

SOHI, Sociedad Hominis Iura

Transparencia Venezuela

Un Mundo Sin Mordaza

Unión Vecinal para la Participación Ciudadana

Venezuela Diversa Asociación Civil

Category:

Region
  • Latin America and Caribbean
Topic
  • Freedom of expression, association and assembly
  • Human rights defenders
Mechanism
  • UN Human Rights Council
Country
  • Venezuela